The study are modified to possess age, sex, body-mass directory, academic level, alcohol intake, and you may geographical part

The study are modified to possess age, sex, body-mass directory, academic level, alcohol intake, and you may geographical part

Features of Study People

The characteristics of the 102,216 participants are shown in Table 1 , and in Tables S2 and S3 in the Supplementary Appendix. Mean sodium excretion was estimated to be 4.93±1.73 g, and mean potassium excretion was estimated to be 2.12±0.60 g, with higher excretion in men than in women (P<0.001 for sodium and potassium).

Patterns regarding Sodium and you can Potassium Excretion

Observed removal from one accelerated morning pee sample and you may estimated “usual” excretion (immediately after adjustment having regression dilution bias) are offered. To possess noticed removal, brand new mean (±SD) salt removal are 4.93±1.73 g a day; 3.3% out of people got salt removal off below dos.30 grams each and every day, and you will 0.6% away from professionals got salt removal regarding less than 1.50 grams a-day. For estimated typical removal, the brand new mean salt removal is cuatro.90±1.17 grams per day; 0.2% of users had salt excretion off lower than dos.30 grams just about every day, and you can nothing had sodium excretion off lower than step 1.fifty g every day.

Overall, 43.5% of the population had an estimated sodium excretion of more than 5 g per day, 45.9% between 3 and 5 g per day, and 10.6% less than 3 g per day (3.3% had an excretion <2.3 g per day, and 0.6% <1.5 g per day). After adjustment for regression dilution bias, 2.1% of participants had an estimated sodium excretion of less than 3 g per day, and only 0.2% had excretion of less than 2.3 g per day ( Figure 1A ). Overall, 7.9% of participants had an estimated potassium excretion of more than 3 g per day ( Figure 1B ).

Estimated sodium excretion was higher in rural areas than in urban areas (P<0.001), whereas estimated potassium excretion was higher in urban areas (P<0.001) (Tables S2 and S3 in the Supplementary Appendix). Per capita gross national income was inversely associated with estimated sodium excretion and positively associated with estimated potassium excretion (P<0.001 for trends). Mean estimated sodium excretion ranged from 3.78 g per day in Malaysia to 5.59 g per day in China. Mean estimated potassium excretion ranged from 1.70 g per day in South Asia (Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan) to 2.46 g per day in Canada and Europe (Poland and Sweden).

Urinary Salt Removal and Blood pressure levels

Changes in blood pressure level receive to possess salt removal off faster than 3 grams daily, removal out-of three to five grams each day, and you will removal of greater than 5 grams just about every day. People with really low otherwise quite high sodium excretion are included regarding the shape. Into the Asia, 218 people that have removal from lower than dos grams every day were included in the class with excretion of 2.00 to dos.99 grams a day, and 482 persons that have removal of more than eleven g for each date was basically as part of the class that have removal away from g otherwise way more a day. Far away, 235 persons having excretion from 9.00 so you can nine.99 g a day and 112 individuals which have removal from 10 grams or https://datingranking.net/bumble-vs-tinder/ even more every day have been as part of the class which have removal regarding 8.00 to eight.99 g daily. We taverns suggest 95% trust menstruation.

After adjusting for covariates, we found a significant positive association between estimated sodium excretion and systolic blood pressure (P<0.001 for trend) and between estimated sodium excretion and diastolic blood pressure (P<0.001 for trend) ( Figure 2A and 2B ). For each 1-g increment in estimated sodium excretion, there was an increment of 1.46 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure (P<0.001) and an increment of 0.54 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure (P<0.001). After correcting for regression dilution bias and adjusting for covariates, we observed a steeper slope (a larger increment in blood pressure for a 1-g increment in estimated sodium excretion) for the association between estimated usual sodium excretion and blood pressure, with an increment of 2.11 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure per gram and an increment of 0.78 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure per gram (P<0.001 for both comparisons).

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